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Gallery Mint Museum Box706 EurekaSprings AR 72632 
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I absolutely LOVE your idea of creating this scrapbook.
This is a great way of answering questions that come up a lot. 
Ron Landis ...Sun, 30 Jul 2000 11:59:06
2003
ScrapBook Subjects
Page
Index
Links
Link: "Direct Carved" UNCIRCULATED Chain Cent
Link: "Special Finish" PROOF Chain Cent
Link: Man Is All This Ever COOL! and Right On The Money!
Link: Cliff's DoubledDie Chain Cent
Link: Proof Chain Cent Die Trial Strike, P1 Extended and P1 Terminal Moraine
Link: Uncirc. Chain Cent Hardcastle Experiment
Link: Uncirc. Chain Cent Mystery!
Enlargement scans available on WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM. 

This WebPage Dedicated to GMM's Chain Cents
            Presented here are seven Chain Cent SBsubjects.            
4/30
U1   Click for Obv., Insert or Rev. on CD-ROM   50
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"DirectCarved" / AMERICA Uncirc.
U2   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   50
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"DoubledDie HighNine" / AMERICA Uncirc.
U4   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   3860
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"WideDate" / AMERI. Uncirc.
U3    Click for Obv., Insert or Rev. on CD-ROM    40
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"CoinWorld (NarrowDate)" / AMERICA Uncirc. (medal/book die alignment)
  • "Direct Carved" UNCIRCULATED Chain Cent
       Acquisition of a specimen of Ron's FIRST Chain Cent (U1 above)... "DirectCarved" / AMERICA Uncirc. ...here in 2003 gives me the opportunity to show all y'all all four different GMM uncirculated Chain Cents in this SBsubject. (Sorry about all the alls but I couldn't resist the word play.)
       I don't recall the precise wording of the fellow who sold me the four chain cents... shown on this webpage with Ron's hand written inserts ...but it was something to the effect that Ron had a number of these sets of four chain cents at a coin convention when he purchased his set. This means that there are certainly more sets out there in several Landis fan's collections. Keep your eyes open!
       Note: The uncirculated AMERICA die has an off-center 100 with the last "0" being LOW. This die is NOT the same one that was used for proof chain cent strikes. EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

    1793 Liberty Flowing Hair Cent -- Chain Reverse
    Reproduction Type Variety Obv. Rev. Mintage
    Direct Carved Dies -- AMERICA Reverse Unc. 1 1st 1st 50
    Doubled Die Obverse with Periods -- AMERICA Reverse Unc. 2 2nd 1st 50
    with Periods -- AMERICA Reverse Unc. 3 3rd 1st 40
    AMERI. Reverse Unc. 4 4th 2nd 3,860
    AMERI. Reverse Unc. 5 4th 3rd Incl. Above
    Cancelled Obverse Die -- AMERI. Reverse Unc. 6 5th 4th <20
    Czapla Summary Of Gallery Mint Reproductions

4/30
P1   Click for Obv., Insert or Rev. on CD-ROM   251+69
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"WideDate" / AMERICA Proof
P2   Click for Obv., Insert or Rev. on CD-ROM   150
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"NarrowDate" / AMERICA Proof
P3    Click for Obv., Insert or Rev. on CD-ROM    30
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"SpecialFinish" / AMERICA Proof
  • "Special Finish" PROOF Chain Cent
       I really love Ron's "Special Finish" / AMERICA Proof Chain Cent (P3 above) so I thought I'd show you all three different GMM proof Chain Cents in this SBsubject. Personally I liked the brilliant bust with matte finish field but Ron decided not to go that direction after striking only 20 specimens. I picked the best struck obverse and reverse from my collection so you probably aren't seeing both sides of the same specimen here.
       Czapla documented 320 P1s, 150 P2s and 30 P3s for a total of 500 PROOF Chain Cents. I suspect the reason he counted 30 of the "Special Finish" pieces is that he included the 10 strikes TheGuys always include in their 10 Archival Sets. You will note the P2 insert says 140 struck while Czapla counted 150 and I'm certain that increase of 10 if for the same reason.
       Note: The proof AMERICA die has a well-centered 100 with the last "0" being HIGH. This die is NOT the same one that was used for uncirculated chain cent strikes. EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

    1793 Liberty Flowing Hair Cent -- Chain Reverse
    Reproduction Type Variety Obv. Rev. Mintage
    Wide Date Proof 1 1st 1st 320
    Wide Date Proof 2 1st 2nd Incl. Above
    Wide Date Proof unlisted 1st 3rd Incl. Above
    Narrow Date Proof 3 2nd 3rd 150
    Periods On Obverse -- Special Proof Finish Proof 4 3rd 3rd 30
    Czapla Summary Of Gallery Mint Reproductions

4/29
Click for Enlargement on CD-ROM
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
Cancelled "CoinWorld" Obv. Die Impression On Paper.
  • Man Is All This Ever COOL!
       Unless Ron pulls me up short this week I am convinced that I have solved a mystery that has puzzled me from the very beginning of my Gallery Mint Museum research project. I had never seen a "proof" CoinWorld specimen even though they are documented to exist by virtue of Ron punching "30P" into the cancelled "CoinWorld" obverse die.
       It happened almost accidentally... by working with all my GMM chain cent specimens to get them scanned and SBsubjects built here for all to share. While doing this I first noted what I took to be a coincidence that there were 30 "SpecialFinish" proofs documented by Czapla and there were 30 proofs noted by Ron Landis on the cancelled "CoinWorld" obverse die. Previously I always took it that the "CoinWorld" proofs and the "SpecialFinish" proofs were two separate creations.
    U3  40   Click for Uncirc. or Proof on CD-ROM   P3  30
    Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
    "CoinWorld" Uncirc. (left)     "SpecialFinish" Proof (right)
       My first response was... "Naw... it couldn't be that simple!" So I laid my two enlarged scans for U3:CoinWorld and P3:SpecialFinish side-by-side and "voil"... it now seems quite obvious to me that they were struck from the same die just reworked significantly between the uncirculated and proof strikes. So... I conclude that; The "SpecialFinish" proof chain cents and the "CoinWorld" uncirculated chain cents are the creations referred to by the "30P" and "40BU" on the cancelled "CoinWorld" obverse die! Now I need to get both confirmation from Ron and "the rest of the story." EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

    Right On The Money!
       Ozawkie - 1 May 2003: I had a great visit with Ron Landis today and he confirmed that my stated conclusion in this case is right on the money. The only thing he could add to this story is that ONLY the "CoinWorld" uncirculated chain cents were sent to the Coin World staff as presents. The "SpecialFinish" proof chain cents were a separate experimental project that simply used the "CoinWorld" uncirculated chain cent obverse die as a starting point by converting it into a proof die. I was aware of GMM proof dies that had been converted to strike uncirculated specimens but this is the first time I've found the reverse case. Another milestone in our study of Ron Landis' creations over time! EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

4/28
U2   Click for Enlargement on CD-ROM   50
A Clifford Bolling photograph.
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"DoubledDie HighNine" / AMERICA Uncirc.
  • Cliff's DoubledDie Chain Cent
       Cliff and I describe this AMERICA reverse die as the bungled 1/10 die because it appears that Ron had a momentary lapse and punched in 1/10 instead of 1/100 and had to come back and "hang on" an extra "0". Ron called this die "...not good enough." so it is no wonder that he only used it to strike a total of 140 uncirculated chain cents.
       What really makes things difficult... and exciting of course ...is that Ron paired three different obverse dies with this reverse die. This makes the three pieces... U1, U2 and U3 shown above ...terribly difficult to round up in one corral all at once.
       Cliff has this "DoubledDie HighNine" specimen... NICE closeup of the die doubling Cliff. Thanks! He used to have the "CoinWorld" specimen that is now in my midden heap but he has yet to lay hands on an example of the "DirectCarved" issue. Keep looking Cliff... there are 49 more of them out there somewhere.
    U2   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   50
    Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
    "DoubledDie HighNine" / AMERICA Uncirc.
    Struck over a Washington Clad Quarter.
       We have seen this pair of uncirculated chain cent dies before in SBsubject Link:Keep A Sharp Lookout For Treasury Agents! but I didn't realize how rare they were when I was bidding on the overstruck quarter. Too soon old... too late smart!
    U2   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   50
    Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
    "DoubledDie HighNine" / 1995 Con$ept
    Con$ept Reverse Die Trial Strike
       We have also seen this uncirculated chain cent obverse die before in SBsubject Link:Kansas City Hey Hey Hey and in this case I was smart enough to pay what it took to acquire this great trial strike. There may be hope for the ol' FatMan yet! EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

4/27
P1   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   251(some portion)
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"WideDate" / AMERICA Proof
30.0-31.0mm diameter   PlainEdge   (medal/book die alignment)
Czapla First Reverse
  • Proof Chain Cent Die Trial Strike
       The first pair of chain cent proof dies on a centered broadstrike is interesting. This strike is probably a die trial before the proof run. Centered, multistruck, not on a specially prepared planchet and no vine and bar edge. Ron would polish and repolish his proof dies every 25 or so strikes unless they needed it sooner. This one is not a polished die strike, thus it has no proof surface. Lindy Stone ...Wed, 21 Feb 2001 13:24:01
       It is my understanding that both the dies and the planchets are polished prior to striking GMM proofs. I watched them polishing planchets with jeweler's rouge and a buffing wheel for the 1804 proof dollars on an early trip to Eureka Springs.
       Another supporting observation for this being a Die Trial Strike is that the AMERICA reverse is in a very early Stage1 die-state. It hasn't been lapped down weaking the links as evidenced with the P1 specimen shown above in Link: "Special Finish" PROOF Chain Cent.
       This piece was broad struck and well centered on a plain edged planchet. Yeoman's RedBook tells us that original Chain Cents measure 26-27mm. I measured a P1 proof cent and it was 26.9-27.2mm. So that makes this piece significantly oversized as one would expect with a broad struck specimen.
       What really tickles me here is the strike of the PROOF dies in a non-proof style/presentation. It seems clear to me that this strike was created during the production process but I certainly can't prove this assertion. I generally prefer actual production errors to custom order errors and true trial die strikes to presentation strikes. However, as Lindy Stone so eloquently states the case, this specimen is a wonderful piece no matter if it is a pi鑓e de caprice or not. EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

    1793 Liberty Flowing Hair Cent -- Chain Reverse
    All GMM Chain Cent proofs were struck with the same AMERICA reverse die.
    We are describing die-states of a single working die here folks.
    First Reverse
    The chain links show no sign of any retouching like the second reverse. The second 'A' in AMERICA and the 'N' of UNITED show no signs of doubling like the third reverse.
    Second Reverse
    Many of the chain links and some letters have been worn and polished off. The ends of the chain links are somewhat crudely retouched. The second 'A' in AMERICA and the 'N' of UNITED show no signs of doubling like the third reverse.
    Third Reverse
    A majority of the letters in the legend were repunched. Extensive work was done on the chain links. The links are smooth and more uniform. The second 'A' in AMERICA and the 'N' of UNITED are noticably double punched.
    Czapla Proof Chain Cent Reverse Die Commentary

    P1   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   251(some portion)
    A Clifford Bolling photograph.
    Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
    "WideDate" / AMERICA Proof
    Czapla Second(?) Reverse
    P1 Extended
       The constant polishing of Ron's proof dies rapidly wore away a lot of the finer detail as one would expect. According to Czapla the "First Reverse" die-state was modified to become the "Second Reverse" die-state by Ron doing some slight retouching of the ends of the chain links. Without several specimens to lay side-by-side for comparison purposes such a small change is difficult to ascertain unequivocally.
       We have no documentation as to how many WideDates were struck before this change took place... thus the "(some portion)" notation used with the illustrations here-in. You can readily see the reduction of hair detail on the WideDate obverse die as the proof issue advances. EMail:Verne R. Walrafen
    P1   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   69(extrapolated)
    A Clifford Bolling photograph.
    Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
    "WideDate" / AMERICA Proof
    Czapla Third Reverse
    P1 Terminal Moraine
       We know from Ron's coinflip insert note that TheGuys struck 251 WideDate proofs before doing heavy reengraving thus changing the "Second Reverse" into the "Third Reverse." Since Czapla tells us the total mintage of WideDate proofs was 320 we are left with 69 WideDate proofs that could only have been struck with the "Third Reverse"... thus the "(extrapolated)" notation used with the illustrations here-in.
       When Cliff obtained the Craig Sholley specimen shown here he speculated that... because of the extreme wear to the WideDate obverse die and the lack of documentation of this die combination by Czapla ...that this specimen might be unique. He wondered if TheGuys might have broken their ironclad policy and dug out the WideDate obverse to strike "one last piece" for Craig combined with the "Third Reverse".
       After careful study... with apologies to Cliff ...I think that scenario is highly unlikely. TheGuys are adamant about NOT doing such things! Based on the logic and facts previously presented here... I hold the opinion that there are 68 more specimens floating around in the Collector Community for us die-state collectors to acquire an example from. One must remember that many of GMM's chain cent production runs created less than 100 pieces so it is not surprising that most die combinations are extremely difficult to find. That... and the fact that most folks are perfectly happy with a single GMM chain cent and could care less what specific dies, let alone which die-states, were used to create it. EMail:Verne R. Walrafen
       The CraigS piece is the only 3rd reverse I have seen. The only clues that make me think it was a very late strike is the late state of the obverse and the rather non-proof surface of both the obverse and reverse, so there is a good chance that I am missing something. I have two other P1's, and they are both paired with the 2nd reverse, and both show better detail and highly mirrored proof surfaces. I might reach a different conclusion if I get to see more pieces with the 3rd reverse. For now, I am happy to think that the CraigS piece is a special strike for a special patron of the GMM... probably unique. Cliff Bolling ...Thursday, May 08, 2003 10:41PM

4/26
U4   Click for Obv. or Rev. on CD-ROM   3860
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"WideDate" / AMERI. Uncirc.
31.5-32.8mm diameter   PlainEdge   (coin die alignment)
  • Uncirc. Chain Cent Hardcastle Experiment
       Concerning the multistrike chain cent, personally I do not think it's a die trial but instead, Adam having fun. Those two underlying strikes, both off center in different positions, is Adam's "saddle strike". He did the same for me on wreath dies. I explained to him that a saddle strike was a planchet simultaneously struck by two die pairs. You see, you need a least a dual or quad press to do "saddle strikes", I informed him back then. So, to me it's a "Adam Hardcastle saddle strike" that was then center struck a third time.
       There are really four groups of GMM oddball stuff; 1) "die trials", 2) real errors that they call "naturals", 3) "Adam Hardcastles", and 4) "special orders". Lindy Stone ... Wed, 21 Feb 2001 13:24:01

       This piece was struck off center and then flipped over and struck off center again diametrically opposite the first strike. Then the double struck piece was struck a third time well centered. This plain edged specimen is about 5mm oversized (roughly 20%) and overweight.
       While it certainly is possible that this is a custom order strike, there are two strong reasons that I am disinclined to believe such to be the case. First... I found this piece in the MintMaster's TrashCan which is where I have found mostly pieces that were clearly die trials and other production flotsam. Second... this really isn't as "spectacular" as most custom order pieces tend to be. It would appear that Adam was experimenting and didn't like the result so pitched it in his TrashCan. EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

4/25
U4   Click for Enlargement on CD-ROM   3860
Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
"WideDate" / AMERI. Uncirc.
Extremely thin pewter sheet   (coin die alignment)
  • Uncirc. Chain Cent Mystery!
       We first wondering about this mysterious thin pewter chain cent well over two years ago in 11/27/2000 SBsubject: Link: "Bromwell" Cent Error Investigation. At that time Ron Landis had the following to say about this specimen: The pewter piece was an early part of an experiment to figure out how the "Bromwell" cent was made (a very rare kind of error on Lincoln cent.) I ended up reproducing the error on a Lincoln cent over NJ copper which was published in Coin World some years back. Ron Landis ...Thu, 16 Nov 2000 10:31:34
       Just a few months ago I showed you the Coin World article about Ron's lamination experiment: Link: 1/15/96 - Mystery Solved! Private minter's experimentation points the finger at lamination as cause of incused images on cents. in 1/25/2003 SBsubject: Link: Once Upon A Time In Coin World. Nothing in this article sheds any light on this thin pewter chain cent. It was obviously struck with both obverse and reverse dies and was not laid over a planchet and restruck... as was done with the ground down, super thin, pseudo-laminate Lincoln cent.
    Enlargements available on both WWW and ScrapBook CD-ROM
    Click for 1/15/96 Article on CD-ROM
       I still don't have a firm grip on how this thin pewter chain cent specimen relates to Ron's lamination experiment. I reckon that this leaves one more GMM mystery yet to be understood... or at least puzzled over. EMail:Verne R. Walrafen

Not only are all seven SBsubjects on this page about Chain Cents
...but... here are links to all earlier Chain Cent SBsubjects...Enjoy!
Link: EARLY GMM ChainCent Comes To Light
Link: COIN WORLD Staff 1793 ChainCent
Link: 1793 Chain Cent...Sure Is NEAT!
Link: "Bromwell" Cent Error Investigation
Link: Is It A Mule Or A Hinny?
Link: Documented In Wax!
Link: More Than You Ever Wanted To Know
          About GMM's Many Chain Cents
Link: Kansas City Hey Hey Hey
Link: Can You Say "Parabolic Mirror"?
Link: Early Pi鑓es De Caprice?
Link: A Sad Turn Of Events
Link: Online Numismatic Resources Abound!
Link: Great Stuff From Craig Sholley
Link: Do You See A COPY Stamp??
Link: Keep A Sharp Lookout For Treasury Agents!
Click for Printer Friendly version of this SBwebpage on CD-ROM
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